Greek Immortals

Greek Pantheon (The DHARMA Initiative)

According to Classical-era mythology, after the overthrow of the Titans, the new pantheon of gods and goddesses was confirmed. Among the principal Greek gods were the Olympians, residing atop Mount Olympus under the eye of Zeus. (The limitation of their number to twelve seems to have been a comparatively modern idea.) Besides the Olympians, the Greeks worshipped various gods of the countryside, the satyr-god Pan, Nymphs (spirits of rivers), Naiads (who dwelled in springs), Dryads (who were spirits of the trees), Nereids (who inhabited the sea), river gods, Satyrs, and others. In addition, there were the dark powers of the underworld, such as the Erinyes (or Furies), said to pursue those guilty of crimes against blood-relatives. In order to honor the Ancient Greek pantheon, poets composed the Homeric Hymns (a group of thirty-three songs). Gregory Nagy regards “the larger Homeric Hymns as simple preludes (compared with Theogony), each of which invokes one god”.

In the wide variety of myths and legends that Greek mythology consists of, the gods that were native to the Greek peoples are described as having essentially corporeal but ideal bodies. According to Walter Burkert, the defining characteristic of Greek anthropomorphism is that “the Greek gods are persons, not abstractions, ideas or concepts”. Regardless of their underlying forms, the Ancient Greek gods have many fantastic abilities; most significantly, the gods are not affected by disease, and can be wounded only under highly unusual circumstances. The Greeks considered immortality as the distinctive characteristic of their gods; this immortality, as well as unfading youth, was insured by the constant use of nectar and ambrosia, by which the divine blood was renewed in their veins.

Each god descends from his or her own genealogy, pursues differing interests, has a certain area of expertise, and is governed by a unique personality; however, these descriptions arise from a multiplicity of archaic local variants, which do not always agree with one another. When these gods are called upon in poetry, prayer or cult, they are referred to by a combination of their name and epithets, that identify them by these distinctions from other manifestations of themselves (e.g. Apollo Musagetes is “Apollo, [as] leader of the Muses”). Alternatively the epithet may identify a particular and localized aspect of the god, sometimes thought to be already ancient during the classical epoch of Greece.

Most gods were associated with specific aspects of life. For example, Aphrodite was the goddess of love and beauty, Ares was the god of war, Hades the god of the dead, and Athena the goddess of wisdom and courage. Some gods, such as Apollo and Dionysus, revealed complex personalities and mixtures of functions, while others, such as Hestia (literally “hearth”) and Helios (literally “sun”), were little more than personifications. The most impressive temples tended to be dedicated to a limited number of gods, who were the focus of large pan-Hellenic cults. It was, however, common for individual regions and villages to devote their own cults to minor gods. Many cities also honored the more well-known gods with unusual local rites and associated strange myths with them that were unknown elsewhere. During the heroic age, the cult of heroes (or demi-gods) supplemented that of the gods.

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The Olympians

APHRODITE

APOLLO

ARES

ARTEMIS

ATHENA

DEMETER

DIONYSUS

HADES

HEPHAESTUS

HERA

HERMES

HESTIA

POSEIDON

ZEUS


Protogenoi (Primordial)

AETHER

EREBUS

GAIA

CHAOS

CHRONOS

NYX

URANUS

PHANES

PONTUS

THALASSA


The Twelve Titans

HYPERION

IAPETUS

COEUS

CRIUS

CRONUS

MNEMOSYNE

OCEANUS

PHOEBE

RHEA

TETHYS

THEIA

THEMIS


Other Titans

ASTERIA

ASTRAEUS

ATLAS

AURA

EOS

EPIMETHEUS

EURYNOME

HELIOS

LELANTOS

LETO

MENOETIUS

METIS

OPHION

PALLAS

PERSES

PROMETHEUS

SELENE

STYX


Gigantes (Giants)

AEGAEON (Hekatoncheires)

COTTUS (Hekatoncheires)

GYGES (Hekatoncheires)

ALCYONEUS

OTUS (Aloadae)

EPHIALTES (Aloadae)

ANTAEUS

ARGUS PANOPTES

ARGES (Cyclopes)

BRONTES (Cyclopes)

STEROPES (Cyclopes)

POLYPHEMUS (Cyclopes)

GERYON

ORION

PORPHYRION

POLYBOTES

TALOS

TITYOS

TYPHON


Personified Concepts

ANTEROS (Erotes)

EROS (Erotes)

HIMEROS (Erotes)

POTHOS (Erotes)

HEBE

HYPNOS

LETHE

MOROS

PHANTASOS (Oneiroi)

PHOBETOR (Oneiroi)

PEITHO

THANATOS

PORUS


Chthonic Deities

ASCALAPHUS

CERBERUS

CHARON

EMPUSA

EREBUS

HECATE

MINOS

KEUTHONYMOS

CRONUS

MENOETES

NYX

PERSEPHONE

ACHERON (River)

COCYTUS (River)

LETHE (River)

PHLEGETHON (River)

STYX (River)

THANATOS


Sea Deities

AEGAEON

AKHEILOS

AMPHITRITE

CETO (I)

CETO (II)

CYMOPOLEIA

DORIS

GLAUCUS

STHENO (Gorgon)

EURYALE (Gorgon)

MEDUSA (Gorgon)

HIPPOCAMP

HIPPOCAMP

HIPPOCAMP

KARKINOS

LADON

THETIS (Nereides)

ARETHUSA (Nereides)

NEREUS

OCEANUS

PHILYRA

PHORCYS

PONTUS

POSEIDON

PROTEUS

SCYLLA

TETHYS

THALASSA

THAUMAS

THOOSA

TRITON


Sky Deities

AETHER

AEOLUS

ELECTRYONE

BOREAS (Anemoi)

EURUS (Anemoi)

NOTUS (Anemoi)

ZEPHYRUS (Anemoi)

APELIOTES (Anemoi)

KAIKIAS (Anemoi)

LIPS (Anemoi)

SKEIRON (Anemoi)

ARKE

ASTRAEUS

PHOSPHORUS

HESPERUS

AURA

CHAOS

CHIONE

EOS

HELIOS

HERA

HERSE

IRIS

URANUS

PANDIA

MAIA (Pleiades)

MEROPE (Pleiades)

SELENE

ZEUS


Rustic Deities

ARISTAEUS

CHIRON (Centaur)

CYBELE

DIONYSUS

GAIA

HEPHAESTUS

HERMES

CALYPSO (Oceanides)

PAN

PRIAPUS

KROTOS


Agricultural Deities

ADONIS

DEMETER

DESPOINA

DIONYSUS

HESTIA

IASION

PERSEPHONE

PHILOMELUS

PLUTUS


Health Deities

ASCLEPIUS

PAEAN


Other Deities

CIRCE

DAMIA

HERMAPHRODITUS

SALMACIS


Deified Mortals

ACHILLES

ARIADNE

ENDYMION

GANYMEDE

HERACLES

MINOS


Monsters & Mythical Creatures

ARION

CAMPE

CERBERUS

CHIMERA

CHRYSAOR

HYDRA

KARKINOS

LADON

MINOTAUR

ORTHRUS

PEGASUS

PYTHON

SCYLLA


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